Will the answers to these questions be
contingent upon yet to be unidentified
• To date, the effect of the use of agile
methods has been primarily at the
project level, with little or no reconcep-tualization at the program or portfolio level. However, scaling frameworks
that propose solutions at these levels are gaining in popularity. How will
agile methods affect program and portfolio management?
• Projects with internal business units
as customers are in a situation quite
different from those with external cus-
tomers under contract:
• For internal projects, how will the
relationship between business
units and projects evolve and will
this fundamentally change the
• For external projects, how will the
use of agile methods for systems
development effect the entire
organization, with redefinitions of
the roles of other departments
and the relationships with customers, in what might become
Abrahamsson, P., Conboy, K., &
Xiaofeng, W. (2009). ‘Lots done, more
to do:’ The current state of agile systems
development research. European Journal
of Information Systems, 18, 281–284.
Ågerfalk, P. J., Fitzgerald, B., & Slaughter,
S. A. (2009). Introduction to the special
issue: Flexible and distributed information
systems development: State of the art and
research challenges. Information Systems
Research, 20( 3), 317–328.
Agile Alliance. (2001). Manifesto for agile
software development. Retrieved from
Al-Zoabi, Z. (2008). Introducing
discipline to Xp: Applying Prince2 on
Xp projects. Paper presented at the
Information and Communication
Technologies: From Theory to
Applications, 2008, ICTTA 2008, 3rd
Ambler, S. W. (2009). The agile scaling
model (ASM): Adapting agile methods for
complex environments. Retrieved from
Ambler, S. W., & Lines, M. (2014).
Scaling agile software development
disciplined agility at scale. Retrieved from
Anantatmula, V. S., & Anantatmula, M.
(2008). Use of agile methodology for IT
consulting projects. Paper presented at
the PMI Research Conference, Warsaw,
Barlow, J. B., Keith, M. J., Wilson, D. W.,
Schuetzler, R. M., Lowry, P. B., Vance,
A., & Giboney, J. S. (2011). Overview and
guidance on agile development in large
organizations. Communications of the
Association for Information Systems, 29,
Beck, K. (2000). Extreme programming
explained: Embrace change. Boston, MA:
Boehm, B. (2002). Get ready for agile
methods, with care. Computer, 35( 1), 64–69.
Boehm, B., & Turner, R. (2003).
Observations on balancing discipline
and agility. Paper presented at the Agile
Development Conference, 2003.
Boehm, B., & Turner, R. (2004). Balancing
agility and discipline: A guide for the
perplexed. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Boehm, B., & Turner, R. (2005).
Management challenges to implementing
agile processes in traditional development
organizations. IEEE Software, 22( 5), 30–39.
Cohn, M. (2009). Succeeding with agile:
Software development using Scrum.
London, England: Pearson Education.
Conboy, K. (2009). Agility from first
principles: Reconstructing the concept
of agility in information systems
development. Information Systems
Research, 20( 3), 329–354.
Conforto, E. C., Amaral, D. C., da Silva,
S. L., Di Felippo, A., & Kamikawachi,
D. S. L. (2016). The agility construct
on project management theory.
International Journal of Project
Management, 34( 4), 660–674.
Conforto, E. C., Salum, F., Amaral, D.
C., da Silva, S. L., & de Almeida, L. F. M.
(2014). Can agile project management
be adopted by industries other
than software development? Project
Management Journal, 45( 3), 21–34.
DiCicco-Bloom, B., & Crabtree, B. F.
(2006). The qualitative research interview.
Medical Education, 40( 4), 314–321.
Dikert, K., Paasivaara, M., & Lassenius,
C. (2016). Challenges and success factors
for large-scale agile transformations: A
systematic literature review. Journal of
Systems & Software, 119, 87–108.
Dingsoyr, T., & Moe, N. B. (2013).
Research challenges in large-scale agile
software development. Paper presented at
the ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering
Dingsøyr, T., Faegri, T. E., & Itkonen,
J. (2014). What is large in large-scale?
A taxonomy of scale for agile software
development. Product-focused software
process improvement (Vol. 8892 in
the series Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, pp. 273–276). New York, NY:
Dingsøyr, T., & Moe, N. B. (2014).
Towards principles of large-scale
agile development: A summary of the
workshop at Xp2014 and a revised
research agenda, Agile methods: Large-scale development, refactoring, testing,
and estimation (Vol. 199 in the series
Lecture Notes in Business Information
Processing, pp. 1–8). New York, NY:
Dingsøyr, T., Nerur, S., Balijepally, V.,
& Moe, N. B. (2012). A decade of agile
methodologies: Towards explaining agile
software development. Journal of Systems
and Software, 85( 6), 1213–1221.
Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD).
(2015). Retrieved from http://www