Tension Description Sample Quote
Standardized–Customized (e.g., Soh &
Standardized: One single system for all users.
Users adapt their processes to the system as
much as possible.
“I believe that we do fit in. You should take
a look at what the program offers and where
things are possible. I think that the so-called
impossibilities can be overcome. You should see
the benefits of the whole.”
Customized: The system is modified to the
various users’ needs as much as possible.
“As a department, you could say we were rather
critical of the standardized part of the system.
In our opinion, this department does not fit the
standardized part of the EHR.”
Large scope–Small scope Scope: Describes the range of the system’s
functionalities, the number of systems that it
replaces, and the number of end users involved.
(Large) “Then it became clear that system X and
system Y would also need to be in place. So
the problem of working with multiple systems
would still exist.”
(Small) “We should work towards one basic
High impact–Low impact (e.g., van Offenbeek &
Impact: Refers to how much the new system is
expected to change working processes.
(High) “In our case, it really matters in terms of
(Low) “In essence, it doesn’t affect how we do
Integration– Differentiation (work organization) Integration: Refers to changing the identity of
involved units and the relationships between
them, leading to greater unification.
“It is crucial that the system can be used in a
Differentiation: The involved units remain
distinct; there is no increase in homogeneity.
“Well, perhaps it is something to consider, i.e.,
a distinct system for our department.”
Bottom-up–Top-down (e.g., Balogun & Hope
Bottom-up: The responsibility for the project and
the change is passed down to the organization
that supports the employees so as to be self-generating.
“I would prefer the perspective to be really
more from the shop floor. Procedures are okay,
but from that point take a look at the work to
Top-down: The center of the organization
initiates the project, determines its direction,
and has control over the project and the change.
“First of all, you do not need to have influence
over the big aspects . . . when it (the system) is
there, we can move on.”
Incremental–Big Bang (e.g., Balogun & Hope
Incremental: Implementation takes place over a
certain period using a step-by-step approach.
“In my opinion, if you are realistic, then you
have to implement it (the system) slowly. A Big
Bang is possible, but not very realistic.”
Big Bang: Implementation takes place all at
“It depends, if you have a ready-made system,
then a Big Bang is the right approach. You
should do it all at once.”
Differentiated– Integrated (project organization) Segmentation: This refers to a high
(differentiated) or low (integrated) degree of
segmentation of the project organization.
“It was really difficult how to catch up
with what was discussed in the various
A cry for greater integration: “Where is the
coherence in all of this?”