The Impact of Project Managers' Personality on Project Success in NGOs
to ensure that they inculcate the right
type of “state” for igniting the specific
behavioral tendencies that can ensure
effective project management. Appropriate training programs may enhance
the behavioral tendencies of project
managers, and these tendencies might
become useful for the effectiveness of
projects. For instance, creating a state of
motivation can add to the effectiveness
of a project (Peterson, 2007).
Limitations and Future
Despite the significance of the findings
of this study there are certain limita-
tions, as the sample was comprised of
managers of projects that came from the
NGO sector of Pakistan. Furthermore,
within the NGO sector, the subsectors
of education and healthcare were the
focus. Therefore, the theoretical gener-
alizability of this study’s findings needs
to be strengthened by including more
subsectors and by conducting the same
study in multiple countries and cultures
as the project management literature
is quite new for NGOs (Golini et al.,
2015). An important demographic char-
acteristic that could affect our results
is the nationality of project managers,
because we can expect variations in the
personality dispositions and leadership
styles of project managers if they belong
to different nations, ethnicities, or con-
texts. However, in our study, all the
managers were from Pakistan. This limi-
tation is an outcome of the prevailing
law and order and security issues in Pak-
istan. People from developed countries
are reluctant to travel to this country
because of terrorist attacks on foreign
nationals. Thus, even international
donor agencies hire project managers
from Pakistan to manage their projects.
Although the issue of CMV variance did
not exist in our data, ideally transforma-
tional leadership should be measured
through peer and subordinates’ rather
than as a self-report. Finally, other per-
sonality taxonomies and dispositions
should also be evaluated for their pos-
sible effects on project success.
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S. No Hypothesis Supported Not Supported
1 Extraversion correlates positively with
2 Agreeableness correlates positively with
3 Conscientiousness correlates positively
with project success
4 Neuroticism correlates negatively with
5 Openness to Experience correlates
positively with project success
6 Transformational leadership mediates the
relations between each of the Big Five
personality traits and project success
Table 6: Summary of hypotheses results.