efficiently respond to changing customer requirements.
Third, we distinguish management
practices from development practices
and agile standards and norms as discussed in Table 1.
We now discuss propositions that
link the concepts in our research model.
We start by positing that agility positively impacts information systems
development success. Successful information systems development largely
depends on meeting customer requirements in the delivery of software. If
responses made to changes of customer
requirements are extensive, it implies
that they include broad and detailed
information about how requirements
translate to software functionality. This
in turn should also lead to elevated
customer satisfaction. Responding efficiently means that development teams
can swiftly alter software when requirements change, in turn increasing performance of the development process.
Together, the more agile a team operates, the more successful the outcomes
of the projects should be and we therefore propose:
P1: Agility positively affects information
systems development success.
Next, we examine how agility
is influenced by the three different
kinds of agile practices we propose.
First, agile development practices,
such as pair programming and con-
tinuous code integration, provide
guidelines for individuals to focus on
software testing, simplifying code, or
enhancing code quality through peer
review. Importantly, through these
mechanisms of self-control and auton-
omy, these practices help to avoid or
detect errors at an early stage of devel-
opment, which in turn frees capacity
in the development process that would
otherwise be used for refactoring, bug
fixing, or code revision. The free capac-
ity, in turn, allows project members to
develop more extensive responses to
work is guided by these practices,
which make up the team’s ways of
working. The team evolves their way
of working alongside their under-
standing of their mission and working
environment. As their work proceeds,
they continually reflect on their way
of working and adapt it to their cur-
rent context, if necessary. These prac-
tices socialize certain norms among
team members (e.g., responsibility
for code written by others and giving
peers the responsibility for their own
code) and reinforce shared rituals and
experiences (e.g., thinking about side
effects their own code might have).
For example, coding standards (CS),
which prescribe rules all developers
have to follow when developing code
(Hazzan & Dubinsky, 2003), and col-
lective code ownership (CCO), which
gives each team member responsi-
bility for all the codes (Xiaohu et al.,
2004), belong to this set of practices.
We now develop a research model
to evaluate our assertion that agile
practices can be evaluated in terms of
how they affect agility understood as
response extensiveness and efficiency,
and how they influence the outcomes of
agile development. Figure 1 illustrates
The research model has three components. First, we follow Lee and Xia
(2010) and define information systems
development success as the relevant
dependent variable of agile development. We conceptualize success in
three dimensions. First, software functionality, as the extent to which the
delivered software meets functional
goals and end-user requirements (Lee
& Xia, 2010; Weitzel & Graen, 1989).
Second, process performance, to provide a resource-oriented view on the
on-time and on-budget completion
of the project (Wallace & Keil, 2004).
Third, customer satisfaction, because it
is one of the fundamental principles of
agile information systems development
as advocated in the Agile Manifesto
(Fowler & Highsmith, 2001).
Second, we again follow Lee and
Xia (2010) and define agility as the
ability of agile teams to extensively and
Figure 1: Research model.